Write a paper that identifies the components of a pain assessment in older adults. Please include the following:
1. What validated pain assessment tools are available to adequately assess older adults who are cognitively intact and applicable to those who may not be cognitively intact? How will you determine the ability of the patient to complete the pain interview or assessment if cognitive deficits are present? Some examples are the numeric rating scale (NRS), the verbal descriptor scale (VDS) or pain thermometer, and the faces pain scale-revised (FPS-R). How might these be appropriate or inappropriate?
2. How does the presence of any sensory deficits (e.g., eyesight, hearing, diminished peripheral touch/pain sensations) and assistive devices such as hearing aids impact the assessment, and how will you overcome these deficits if present?
3. What specialized tools for neuropathic pain should be considered for older adults capable of verbal communication that is suspected of having neuropathic pain?
4. How do evaluations of pain impact the older adults functioning (e.g., associated symptoms, sleep disturbance, appetite changes, physical activity changes, concentration, and relationships with others)?
be supported with a minimum of 5 scholarly, peer-reviewed sources from the past 5 years, external to those assigned for this unit.