In 1983, under the Chief Stephens of the Newport, Virginia police department, the term problem-oriented approach was introduced. This approach focused on major reoccurring crimes. As a result, it developed the 4-step approach known as SARA for scanning, analysis, response, and assessment
Broken windows theory: The authors of the textbook state a successful strategy for preventing vandalism is to fix the problems when they are small. For example, repair a broken window within a short time and the predicted result is that vandals are less likely to break more windows or do further damage. Another example clean up the sidewalk every day, and the tendency is for litter not to accumulate. Problems do not escalate, and thus respectable residents do not flee a neighborhood.
The above theory makes two major claims. First, that future petty crime and low-level anti-social behavior will be deterred and second claim that major crime will be prevented. Criticism of the theory has tended to focus only on the latter claim.
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